The basic science of intermittent fasting.

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The references used in the IF Science page

The articles referenced on the page explaining intermittent fasting science are found below in APA format. If you would like to find the original article, simply put the title in Google scholar. Some are available for free and most have publicly available abstracts.

Anson, R. M., Guo, Z., de Cabo, R., Iyun, T., Rios, M., Hagepanos, A., . . . Mattson, M. P. (2003). Intermittent fasting dissociates beneficial effects of dietary restriction on glucose metabolism and neuronal resistance to injury from calorie intake. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 100(10), 6216-6220. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1035720100

Barzilai, N., & Gupta, G. (1999). Revisiting the Role of Fat Mass in the Life Extension Induced by Caloric Restriction. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 54(3), B89-B96. doi: 10.1093/gerona/54.3.B89

Bordone, L., & Guarente, L. (2005). Calorie restriction, SIRT1 and metabolism: understanding longevity. [10.1038/nrm1616]. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 6(4), 298-305.

Brask, J., Kristensson, K., & Hill, R. H. (2004). Exposure to interferon-γ during synaptogenesis increases inhibitory activity after a latent period in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19(12), 3193-3201. doi: 10.1111/j.0953-816X.2004.03445.x

Cefalu, W. T., Bell-Farrow, A. D., Wang, Z. Q., Sonntag, W. E., Fu, M. X., Baynes, J. W., & Thorpe, S. R. (1995). Caloric restriction decreases age-dependent accumulation of the glycoxidation products, N epsilon-(carboxymethyl)lysine and pentosidine, in rat skin collagen. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 50(6), B337-341.

Cefalu, W. T., Wagner, J. D., Wang, Z. Q., Bell-Farrow, A. D., Collins, J., Haskell, D., . . . Morgan, T. (1997). A study of caloric restriction and cardiovascular aging in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis): a potential model for aging research. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 52(1), B10-19.

Cohen, H. Y., Miller, C., Bitterman, K. J., Wall, N. R., Hekking, B., Kessler, B., . . . Sinclair, D. A. (2004). Calorie Restriction Promotes Mammalian Cell Survival by Inducing the SIRT1 Deacetylase. Science, 305(5682), 390-392. doi: 10.1126/science.1099196

Colman, R. J., Anderson, R. M., Johnson, S. C., Kastman, E. K., Kosmatka, K. J., Beasley, T. M., . . . Weindruch, R. (2009). Caloric Restriction Delays Disease Onset and Mortality in Rhesus Monkeys. Science, 325(5937), 201-204. doi: 10.1126/science.1173635

Combs, T. P., Berg, A. H., Rajala, M. W., Klebanov, S., Iyengar, P., Jimenez-Chillaron, J. C., . . . Scherer, P. E. (2003). Sexual Differentiation, Pregnancy, Calorie Restriction, and Aging Affect the Adipocyte-Specific Secretory Protein Adiponectin. Diabetes, 52(2), 268-276. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.52.2.268

Culmsee, C., Monnig, J., Kemp, B., & Mattson, M. (2001). AMP-activated protein kinase is highly expressed in neurons in the developing rat brain and promotes neuronal survival following glucose deprivation. Journal of Molecular Neuroscience, 17(1), 45-58. doi: 10.1385/jmn:17:1:45

Dunn, S. E., Kari, F. W., French, J., Leininger, J. R., Travlos, G., Wilson, R., & Barrett, J. C. (1997). Dietary restriction reduces insulin-like growth factor I levels, which modulates apoptosis, cell proliferation, and tumor progression in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res, 57(21), 4667-4672.

Feinstein, R., Kanety, H., Papa, M. Z., Lunenfeld, B., & Karasik, A. (1993). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha suppresses insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor and its substrates. J Biol Chem, 268(35), 26055-26058.

Fontana, L., Meyer, T. E., Klein, S., & Holloszy, J. O. (2004). Long-term calorie restriction is highly effective in reducing the risk for atherosclerosis in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 101(17), 6659-6663. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0308291101

Haigis, M. C., & Guarente, L. P. (2006). Mammalian sirtuins–emerging roles in physiology, aging, and calorie restriction. Genes Dev, 20(21), 2913-2921. doi: 10.1101/gad.1467506

Hall, G. a. (2010). Guyton and Hall Textbook of Medical Physiology (12 ed.).

Kaeberlein, M., McVey, M., & Guarente, L. (1999). The SIR2/3/4 complex and SIR2 alone promote longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by two different mechanisms. Genes Dev, 13(19), 2570-2580.

Kashiwaya, Y., Takeshima, T., Mori, N., Nakashima, K., Clarke, K., & Veech, R. L. (2000). d-β-Hydroxybutyrate protects neurons in models of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(10), 5440-5444. doi: 10.1073/pnas.97.10.5440

Kayo, T., Allison, D. B., Weindruch, R., & Prolla, T. A. (2001). Influences of aging and caloric restriction on the transcriptional profile of skeletal muscle from rhesus monkeys. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(9), 5093-5098.

Kim, H.-J., Kim, K.-W., Yu, B.-P., & Chung, H.-Y. (2000). The effect of age on cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression: NF-κB activation and IκBα degradation. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 28(5), 683-692. doi:

Kops, G. J. P. L., Dansen, T. B., Polderman, P. E., Saarloos, I., Wirtz, K. W. A., Coffer, P. J., . . . Burgering, B. M. T. (2002). Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a protects quiescent cells from oxidative stress. Nature, 419, 316-321.

Lane, M. A., Ball, S. S., Ingram, D. K., Cutler, R. G., Engel, J., Read, V., & Roth, G. S. (1995). Diet restriction in rhesus monkeys lowers fasting and glucose-stimulated glucoregulatory end points. Am J Physiol, 268(5 Pt 1), E941-948.

Lee, C.-K., Weindruch, R., & Prolla, T. A. (2000). Gene-expression profile of the ageing brain in mice. [10.1038/77046]. Nat Genet, 25(3), 294-297.

Lee, J., Herman, J. P., & Mattson, M. P. (2000). Dietary Restriction Selectively Decreases Glucocorticoid Receptor Expression in the Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex of Rats. Experimental Neurology, 166(2), 435-441. doi:

Lee, J., Kim, S. J., Son, T. G., Chan, S. L., & Mattson, M. P. (2006). Interferon-γ is up-regulated in the hippocampus in response to intermittent fasting and protects hippocampal neurons against excitotoxicity. Journal of Neuroscience Research, 83(8), 1552-1557. doi: 10.1002/jnr.20831

Lin, S.-J., Defossez, P.-A., & Guarente, L. (2000). Requirement of NAD and SIR2 for Life-Span Extension by Calorie Restriction in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Science, 289(5487), 2126-2128. doi: 10.1126/science.289.5487.2126

Lin, S. J., Kaeberlein, M., Andalis, A. A., Sturtz, L. A., Defossez, P. A., Culotta, V. C., . . . Guarente, L. (2002). Calorie restriction extends Saccharomyces cerevisiae lifespan by increasing respiration. Nature, 418(6895), 344-348.

Martin, B., Mattson, M. P., & Maudsley, S. (2006). Caloric restriction and intermittent fasting: Two potential diets for successful brain aging. Ageing Research Reviews, 5(3), 332-353. doi:

Mascarucci, P., Taub, D., Saccani, S., Paloma, M. A., Dawson, H., Roth, G. S., . . . Ingram, D. K. (2002). Cytokine responses in young and old rhesus monkeys: effect of caloric restriction. J Interferon Cytokine Res, 22(5), 565-571. doi: 10.1089/10799900252982043

Mattison, J. A., Lane, M. A., Roth, G. S., & Ingram, D. K. (2003). Calorie restriction in rhesus monkeys. Experimental gerontology, 38(1-2), 35-46.

Meier, U., & Gressner, A. M. (2004). Endocrine Regulation of Energy Metabolism: Review of Pathobiochemical and Clinical Chemical Aspects of Leptin, Ghrelin, Adiponectin, and Resistin. Clinical Chemistry, 50(9), 1511-1525. doi: 10.1373/clinchem.2004.032482

Metoyer, C. F., & Pruitt, K. (2008). The role of sirtuin proteins in obesity. Pathophysiology, 15(2), 103-108. doi:

Naik, G. (2012, August 30 2012). Big Calorie Cuts Don’t Equal Longer Life, Study Suggests, The Wall Street Journal.

Nakae, J., Kitamura, T., Silver, D. L., & Accili, D. (2001). The forkhead transcription factor Foxo1 (Fkhr) confers insulin sensitivity onto glucose-6-phosphatase expression. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 108(9), 1359-1378.

Nemoto, S., Fergusson, M. M., & Finkel, T. (2004). Nutrient Availability Regulates SIRT1 Through a Forkhead-Dependent Pathway. Science, 306(5704), 2105-2108. doi: 10.1126/science.1101731

Pajvani, U., & Scherer, P. (2003). Adiponectin: Systemic contributor to insulin sensitivity. Current Diabetes Reports, 3(3), 207-213. doi: 10.1007/s11892-003-0065-2

Tran, H., Brunet, A., Grenier, J. M., Datta, S. R., Fornace Jr, A. J., DiStefano, P. S., . . . Greenberg, M. E. (2002). DNA repair pathway stimulated by the forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a through the Gadd45 protein. Science Signalling, 296(5567), 530.

Wan, R., Camandola, S., & Mattson, M. P. (2003). Intermittent food deprivation improves cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to stress in rats. J Nutr, 133(6), 1921-1929.

Weindruch, R., Kayo, T., Lee, C. K., & Prolla, T. A. (2002). Gene expression profiling of aging using DNA microarrays. Mechanisms of ageing and development, 123(2), 177-193.

Wong, G., Goldshmit, Y., & Turnley, A. M. (2004). Interferon-γ but not TNFα promotes neuronal differentiation and neurite outgrowth of murine adult neural stem cells. Experimental Neurology, 187(1), 171-177. doi:

Wood, J. G., Rogina, B., Lavu, S., Howitz, K., Helfand, S. L., Tatar, M., & Sinclair, D. (2004). Sirtuin activators mimic caloric restriction and delay ageing in metazoans. [10.1038/nature02789]. Nature, 430(7000), 686-689. doi:

Wu, X., Motoshima, H., Mahadev, K., Stalker, T. J., Scalia, R., & Goldstein, B. J. (2003). Involvement of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Glucose Uptake Stimulated by the Globular Domain of Adiponectin in Primary Rat Adipocytes. Diabetes, 52(6), 1355-1363. doi: 10.2337/diabetes.52.6.1355